Since the classical papers by M. Carey Lea on mechanical activation of solids over hundred years back (1893–94), mechanochemistry and mechanical activation have moved a long way and evolved as a frontier area of research and applications, during the last two to three decades. Notable developments have taken place in terms of scientific understanding and applications in diverse fields, encompassing all facets of metallurgy including metal extraction, alloying, composites; traditional and advanced ceramics processing; paints, pigments and dyes; catalysis, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, utilization of wastes, energy and environment, and many more. Simultaneous developments have taken place in terms of characterization techniques of activated solids; quantification and control of activation processes; and mechanical activation devices for specific needs, etc.

The INCOME series of conferences initiated by International Mechanochemistry Association [an associate member of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists (IUPAC)] has served as a common platform to bring together all stakeholders from academia, Research and Development organisations, and industry to foster the growth of the discipline. The first international conference on ‘Mechanochemistry and Mechanical Alloying’ (INCOME 1993) was held in Košice (Slovakia) in 1993. This was followed by INCOME 1997 in Novosibirsk (Russia), INCOME 2000 in Prague (Czech Republic); INCOME 2003, in Braunschweig (Germany), INCOME 2006 again in Novosibirsk, and INCOME 2008 in Jamshedpur (India).

The developments in the field of mechanochemistry are unfolding at a rapid rate in terms of basic science, range of applications, and their impact. While significant advances are taking place in each of the application areas, e.g. smart mechanochemistry, pharmaceuticals, etc., and call for periodic review, the need for cross fertilization of concepts and ideas is increasingly becoming apparent. The next conference of the series, INCOME 2011, will be held in Herceg Novi, Montenegro, from August 31 – September 3, 2011. The conference aims to provide a forum for presentation of new results, identification of current research & development trends and future directions, and promote interactions among various stakeholders dealing with various aspects of the discipline. It is also proposed to organize an exhibition on the sideline of the conference to provide an opportunity to related institutes/companies for the display of their products.